Eugenia Krimmel, readinghorizons.com
Small scale objects, real pictures, or the object itself used for teaching
Character maps, timelines, and story sequencing
Word banks and word walls
Small group and pair work
To modify homework and tests:
Reduce the amount of questions on homework assignments (ex. 50 questions > 25 questions)
Re-write tests to reduce linguistic load and parallels reduced homework assignments
Allow oral presentation/poster presentation of learned content to measure learning
Top 5 EL accommodations:
Extended time (on tests, time 1/2)
Oral presentation/Teacher-Read directions
Reduced distractors on multiple choice tests
Read-aloud to self
Studies indicate that, in most classrooms, teachers dominate the linguistic aspect of the lesson, leaving students severely limited in terms of opportunity to use language in a variety of ways.
The best way to ensure the ELs and ALL students are able to read and write with the greatest comprehension and expression is to increase ORAL language!
Get them listening and speaking to each other before and provide thorough instruction to ensure the content is more meaningful and that it "sticks"!
Design learning activities that are authentic, meaningful and relevant.
Seek student feedback - for example: show of fingers to indicate which of the following ratings fit:
1 finger - I understand this concept
2 fingers - It looks familiar, or I have studied something like this before
3 fingers - I don't know this
...or at the end of the lesson to how well the lesson objective was met:
1 finger - I can teach this concept to someone else
2 fingers - I understand most but not everything
3 fingers - I don't understand completely; I need more time/practice/examples
"Bricks" are the vocabulary specific to the content and the concepts being taught. They include such words as: government, mitosis, metaphor, revolt, arid, revolution and habitat.
"Mortar" words and phrases are required for constructing sentences. They are words that hold our language together and are essential to comprehension. This vocabulary is best taught explicitly in the context of language use, as these words do not generally stand alone, but within the context of a sentence or phrase. Examples include: because, then, sometimes, on, under, behind, live, eat, use, she, their, it, themselves, notice, think and analyze.